Johann Friedrich Miescher isolatesa substance which he calls NUCLEIN from the nuclei of white blood cells that was soluble in alkalis but not in acids. This substance came to be known as nucleic acid.

Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet showed the importance of statistical analysis for biologists and laid the foundation of biometry.

Publication of Charles Darwin's Descent of Man, in which the role of sexual selection in evolution is described for the first time.

  Ferdinand Julius Cohn coined the term BACTERIUM and founded the study of bacteriology.
  Anton Schneider observed and described the behavior of nuclear filaments (chromosomes) during cell division in his study of the platyhelminth Mesostoma. His account was the first accurate description of the process of mitosis in animal cells.
  F. Galton demonstrates the usefulness of twin studies for elucidating the relative influence of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment) upon behavioral traits.

Oscar Hertwig concludes from a study of the reproduction of the sea urchin that fertilization in both animals and plants consists of the physical union of the two nuclei contributed by the male and female parents.

Eduard Strasburger accurately described the processes of mitotic cell division in plants.

1876 Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.
  H. Fol reports watching the spermatozoan of a starfish penetrate the egg. He was able to see the transfer of the intact nucleus of the sperm into the egg, where it became the male pronucleus.
1877 Rutherford B. Hayes becomes nineteenth president of the United States.
  Wilhelm Friedrich Kühne proposed the term ENZYME (meaning "in yeast") and distinguished enzymes from the micro-organisms that produce them.
1878 Edison and Swan produce first successful incandescent electric light.
  Walther Flemming describes and names CHROMATIN, MITOSIS, and the SPIREME. He makesthe first accurate counts of chromosome numbers and accurately drew the "longitudinal splitting" of chromosomes.